嗜癖, 習慣






薬物嗜癖 薬物習慣
drug addiction drug habituation
可能性 誰でも 一部の人
主な要因 薬物の薬理作用 心理学的性格
薬物の厳格な規制 必要 不要

また、嗜癖形成薬物(addiction-producing drug)と習慣形成薬物(habituation-forming drug)という二つのカテゴリを設けた。















1950年、WHOの専門家委員会(Expert Committee on Drugs Liable to Produce Addiction)は、その報告書(Technical Report Series No.21)で、薬物嗜癖の定義を以下のように起案した(1957年に改版されている)。同時に、嗜癖形成薬物と習慣形成薬物の二種を設けた。

薬物嗜癖(drug addiction)の定義

6.1 Definition of drug addiction

Having considered the request of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, the committee drafted the following definition of “drug addiction” :

Drug addiction is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and to society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). Its characteristics include:

  • (1) an overpowering desire or need (compulsion) to continue taking the drug and to obtain it by any means;
  • (2) a tendency to increase the dose;
  • (3) a psychic (psychological) and sometimes a physical dependence on the effects of the drug.

WHO Expert Committee on Drugs Liable to Produce Addiction (1950)1). pp.6-7
Technical Report Series No.21 [pdf] (WHO)

6.1 薬物嗜癖(drug addition)の定義


  • (1) 抗し難い欲求または要求(強迫的)により薬物を摂取し続けるため,いかなる手段によってでもそれを得ようとする
  • (2) 服用量が増加する傾向にある
  • (3) その効果に対し,精神的(心理的)にも,そしてたいていは身体的にも依存が生ずる

ケラー・マコーミック (1987/1982)2), p.9


6.2 Definition of addiction-forming drugs

The committee was of the opinion that the expression “addiction-forming” and its related grammatical forms should be replaced by “addiction-producing”, etc. The committee then adopted the following definition:

An addiction-producing drug is one which produces addiction as defined.

The committee wished to emphasize that all available evidence at thepresent time indicates that any substance which will sustain an established addiction-i.e., will adequately replace the drug which has produced the addiction-must be considered as also capable of producing an addiction.

6.3 Definition of habit-forming drugs

A habit-forming drug is one which is or may be taken repeatedly without the production of all of the characteristics outlined in the definition of addiction and which is not generally considered to be detrimental to the individual and to society.

The committee was of the opinion that the expression “habit-forming” in the sense of addiction-producing should be eliminated from all texts. WHO Expert Committee on Drugs Liable to Produce Addiction (1950)3). p.7
Technical Report Series No.21 [pdf] (WHO)

嗜癖形成薬物(Definition of addiction-forming drugs)の定義(6.2)では、addiction-forming という表現を addiction-producing という表現に置き換えるべきだとしたうえで、

嗜癖形成薬物(addiction-producing drug)とは嗜癖を形成(produce)する薬物である



習慣形成薬物(habit-forming drugs)の定義では、



1952年、WHOの専門家委員会(Expert Committee on Drugs Liable to Produce Addiction)は、その報告書(Technical Report Series No.57)で、薬物嗜癖と薬物習慣の区別の必要性を再度主張し、それらの定義を決定した。

6.1 General discussion of the definitions

6.1 定義に関する全般的議論

After two years' experience with the definitions propounded at its second session, the committee reiterated its opinion that a distinction can and must be made between drug addiction and habituation (habit), and between addiction-producing and habit-forming drugs, that the terms are not interchangeable, and that only the expressions drug addiction and addiction-producing drugs should be used in documentation with respect to substances brought under, or to be brought under, international control. The committee decided, further, to clarify the distinction between addiction and habituation(habit) by the following statement:


The cycle of administration leading to addiction may begin in legitimate medical use but becomes established as a serious problem through self-administration beyond medical need. In the development of addiction there is an interplay between pharmacological action and the psychological make-up of the individual.


There are some drugs, notably morphine and pharmacologically morphine-like substances, whose specific pharmacological action, under individual conditions of time and dose, will always produce compulsive craving, dependence, and addiction in any individual. Addiction will develop sooner in those individuals whose psychological make-up leads them to seek and find escape in the pharmacological action of drugs. Sooner or later there must come a time when the use of the drug cannot be interrupted without significant disturbance, always psychic (psychological) and sometimes physical. With these drugs pharmacological action is paramount, psychological make-up adjuvant. Such drugs cause individual and sociological damage and must be rigidly controlled.


There are other drugs which never produce compulsive craving, yet their pharmacological action is found desirable to some individuals to the point that they readily form a habit of administration, an habituation. Administration of such drugs can be interrupted without significant disturbances. With them psychological make-up is paramount, pharmacological action adjuvant. They cause no sociological damage and do not need rigid control.


There are some drugs whose pharmacological action is intermediate in kind and degree between the two groups already delineated so that compulsive craving, dependence, and addiction can develop in those individuals whose psychological make-up leads them to seek and find an escape in drugs. With these substances psychological make-up is the determining factor but pharmacological action plays a significant role. In some instances individual and sociological damage may develop, but since the incidence of the damage is not general, the type and degree of control of drugs of this group are better left at present to national consideration.


WHO Expert Committee on Drugs Liable to Produce Addiction (1952)4), pp.9-10
Technical Report Series No.57 [pdf] (WHO)


1954年、WHOの専門家委員会(Expert Committee on Alcohol)は、報告書(Technical Report Series No.84)の中で、「アルコールは嗜癖形成薬物なのか」という問いに対し、以下のような見解を述べている。


  • 「いかなる手段によってでも薬物を摂取し続けようという抗し難い欲求」が、アルコールでは一部少数の使用者にしか見られず、欲求が起きた場合でも、その強さはモルヒネのものに比べて小さい
  • アルコールによって形成される耐性の増大は、モルヒネタイプの嗜癖形成薬物に比べて緩やか
  • アルコール離脱後の長期禁断症状5)の欠如により、モルヒネと比べて身体依存の程度が弱いことが示される



  • (a) アルコールの大量摂取が社会に与える影響は深刻であるため、アルコールを習慣形成薬物のグループに入れることはできない。
  • (b) アルコールはモルヒネおよび類似の薬物に見られる長期の離脱症状こそ引き起こさないものの、大量飲酒者の突然の断酒はしばしば短期の離脱症状を引き起こすこと。
  • (c) 当委員会は、一定の実験的状況において動物が自発的に飲酒量を増やしたことを「実験によってアルコホリズムを引き起こした」6)と認めることは躊躇するものの、こうした観察により、アルコールへの「渇望」は、これまで有力な見方であった心理学的な原因によるものではなく、身体的な基盤を持つと思われること。


3.4 The position of alcohol as a drug (extracted)
For these reasons, it was thought necessary to place alcohol in a category of its own, intermediate between addiction-producing and habit-forming drugs. WHO Expert Committee on Alcohol (1954)7), p.10
Technical Report Series No.84 [pdf] (WHO)


1957年、WHOの専門家委員会(Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs)は、その報告書(Technical Report Series No.116)で、薬物嗜癖と薬物習慣の定義を発表した。1950年発表の薬物嗜癖の定義案に対し「(4) 個人および社会に対して有害な影響をもたらす」が追加され、また薬物習慣の定義を行うことで、嗜癖と習慣を明確に区別しようとしている。

8. Definition of Habit-Forming Drugs

8. 習慣形成薬物の定義

Reviewing at this time the definitions of addiction-producing and habit-formingdrugs as drafted in its second report2 and clarified in its third report,3 the Committee was of the opinion that the time was ripe for emphasizing again the distinction between addiction and habituation (see Annex, page 12). To this end the following definitions were approved:4

嗜癖形成薬物と習慣形成薬物の定義についての第二報告書でのドラフト2、および第三報告書でより明瞭化されたもの3について今回再検討を行った結果、当委員会は嗜癖と習慣(付録参照, p.12)の区別について再度強調するべき時期であるという意見に至った。

Drug addiction Drug habituation
Drug addiction is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). Its characteristics include:Drug habituation (habit) is a condition resulting from the repeated consumption of a drug. Its characteristics include:
(1)an overpowering desire or need (compulsion) to continue taking the drug and to obtain it by any means;a desire (but not a compulsion) to continue taking the drug for the sense of improved well-being which it engenders;
(2)a tendency to increase the dose;little or no tendency to increase the dose;
(3)a psychic (psychological) and generally a physical dependence on the effects of the drug;some degree of psychic dependence on the effect of the drug, but absence of physical dependence and hence of an abstinence syndrome;
(4)detrimental effect on the individual and on society.detrimental effects, if any, primarily on the individual.
薬物嗜癖 薬物習慣

2 Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1950, 21, 6-7 (sections 6.1-6.3)
3 Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1952, 57, 9 (section 6.1)
4 The definition for drug addiction is substantially the same as the one given in the second report of the Committee; that for drug habituation is new.

4 薬物嗜癖の定義については当委員会の第二報告書内のものと実質的に同じであり、薬物習慣についてのみ新しく定義された。 WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs (1957)8), pp.9-10
Technical Report Series No.116 [pdf] (WHO)



がいずれも採択されなかったため、1964年WHOの専門家委員会(Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs)は嗜癖や習慣のかわりに依存(dependence)を使うことを勧告した

1952年のW.H.O.の専門委員会(略)のいうaddictionの定義(1952-1957年改正)およびaddiction(嗜癖)とhabituation(習慣)の間の区別(1957)も採択されなかったし,両者の混同も解決されなかった.したがって,1964年に同委員会は薬剤の乱用を表現するのに従来使用されていた嗜癖(addiction)や習慣(habituation)の代わりに依存(dependence)を用い,その前に該当する薬剤名を付することを勧告した.米国のNational Academy of Science-National Research CouncilのDrug Addiction and Narcoticsの委員会はその後これに同意した(1964). ケラー・マコーミック (1987/1982)9), p.9

4. Terminology in Regard to Drug Abuse
“Drug dependence” to replace the terms “drug addiction” and “drug habituation”

The WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs in 1952 1 attempted to formulate a definition of addiction applicable to drugs under international control, which it later (1957)2 revised. The Expert Committee sought also to differentiate addiction from habituation and wrote a definition of the latter which, however, failed in practice to make a clear distinction. The definition of addiction gained some acceptance, but confusion in the use of the terms addiction and habituation and misuse of the former continued. Further, the list of drugs abused increased in number and diversity. These difficulties have become increasingly apparent and various attempts have been made to find a term that could be applied to drug abuse generally. The component in common appears to be dependence, whether psychic or physical or both. Hence, use of the term “drug dependence”, with a modifying phrase linking it to a particular drug type in order to differentiate one class of drugs from another, has been given most careful consideration.

WHOの専門家委員会(Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs)は1952年に国際的に規制を受けている薬物を対象とした嗜癖の定義を明確にしようとした。1957年にはその定義の改版を行った。専門家委員会はまた、嗜癖(addiction)と習慣(habituation)の区別を目指し、後者の定義も作成したが、両者の違いは必ずしも明確にならなかった。嗜癖の定義はある程度受け入れられたが、嗜癖と習慣という用語の使い分けの混乱や、以前からの誤用は終息しなかった。さらに、乱用される薬物のリストは長くなり、多様性も増加した。困難が増していることが明らかになったため、薬物乱用全般に適用できるような用語を見出そうとする様々な努力が行われた。精神的に、身体的に、またその両者に共通して「依存(dependence)」という用語が使われていることは明らかであった。とはいえ、「薬物依存」という言葉を使うに当たっては、ある薬物と他とを区別するために、該当する薬物の種類を付すことが望ましいことを十分に考慮すべきである。

“Drug dependence” is defined as a state arising from repeated administration of a drug on a periodic or continuous basis. Its characteristics will vary with the agent involved and this must be made clear by designating the particular type of drug dependence in each specific case–for example, drug dependence of morphine type, of cocaine type, of cannabis type, of barbiturate type, of amphetamine type, etc. (See Annex 1 for descriptions of specific types of drug dependence.)

「薬物依存」は周期的あるいは連続的に薬物を繰り返し摂取することによって起こる状態と定義される。その特徴は関わる薬物によって様々に異なっているため、個々の事例についてどのタイプの薬物の依存なのか明示されなければならない。それは例えばモルヒネタイプの薬物依存、コカインタイプ、バルビツールタイプ、アンフェタミンタイプなどである(薬物依存のタイプ分けについてはAnnex 1を参照のこと)。

The Expert Committee recommends substitution of the term “drug dependence” for the terms “drug addiction” and “ drug habituation”.


It must be emphasized that drug dependence is a general term selected for its applicability to all types of drug abuse and carries no connotation of the degree of risk to public health or need for a particular type of drug control. The agents controlled internationally continue to be those that are morphine-like, cocaine-like, and cannabis-like, however produced, the use of which results in drug dependence of morphine type, drug dependence of cocaine type, and drug dependence of cannabis type. Other types of drug dependence (barbiturate, amphetamine, etc.) continue to present problems, but their description under the general term “drug dependence” does not in any way affect the measures taken to solve them. The general term will help to indicate a relationship by drawing attention to a common feature associated with drug abuse and at the same time permit more exact description and differentiation of specific characteristics according to the nature of the agent involved.


1) Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1952, 57, 9 (section 6.1).
2) Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1957, 116, 9 (section 8).

注)Annex 1には、モルヒネ、バルビツール、コカイン、アンフェタミン、大麻が挙げられている。

WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs (1964)10), pp.9-10
Technical Report Series No.273 [pdf] (WHO)


嗜癖という言葉には、「社会的に良くないこと」という意味が含まれていた。科学の用語として社会的な善悪の価値観が含まれるのは都合が悪い。これも嗜癖(アディクション)という言葉が使われなくなった理由のひとつである [廣中(2001)11), p.6]。

1) , 3)
WHO Expert Committee on Drugs Liable to Produce Addiction (1950), Report on Second Session. Geneva: Wolrd Health Organization →Technical Report Series No.21 [pdf] (WHO)
2) , 9)
M.ケラー・M.マコーミック (1987/1982), 『アルコール辞典 改訂第2版』, 津久江一郎訳, 東京: 診断と治療社, amazon.jp
WHO Expert Committee on Drugs Liable to Produce Addiction (1952), Third Report, Geneva: Wolrd Health Organization →Technical Report Series No.57 [pdf] (WHO)
“persistant abstinence symptoms after withdrawal of alcohol”
“experimental alcoholism”
WHO Expert Committee on Alcohol (1954), First Report, Geneva: Wolrd Health Organization →Technical Report Series No.84 [pdf] (WHO)
WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs (1957), Seventh Report, Geneva: Wolrd Health Organization →Technical Report Series No.116 [pdf] (WHO)
WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs (1964), Thirteenth Report. Geneva: Wolrd Health Organization → Technical Report Series No.273 [pdf] (WHO)
廣中 直行(2001), 『人はなぜハマるのか』, 東京: 岩波書店
dependence/addiction_vs_dependence.txt · 最終更新: 2014/07/10 by ragi